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Come distinguere le farine

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Le farine variano in base al loro processo di lavorazione e vengono suddivise in diverse tipologie in base a 3 principali caratteristiche:

  • Quantità di “ceneri” presenti, cioè il contenuto di minerali. Più una farina è bianca più è basso il contenuto di ceneri (una farina bianca viene prodotta dalla macinazione del solo endosperma), più la farina è scura maggiore sarà il contenuto di ceneri (in questo caso la produzione è avvenuta utilizzando anche altre parti del chicco di grano).
  • W= forza della farina, cioè la capacità di resistere alla lavorazione. Le farine si definiscono:
    • “deboli” se W è compreso tra 90 e 170 (ridotta quantità di glutine, assorbono meno acqua, non adatte alla lievitazione)
    • “medie” se W è compreso tra 170 e 250 (maggior contenuto di glutine, assorbimento dell’acqua pari al 60% circa del loro peso, adatte alla lievitazione corta)
    • “forte” se W compreso tra 250 e 350 circa (maggior contenuto di glutine rispetto alle farine medie, assorbimento dell’acqua fino al 75% del loro peso, adatte a lunghe lievitazioni)
    • “molto forte” se W è maggiore di 350 (ricca di glutine, adatta a lunghissime lievitazioni). Questo tipo di farina viene spesso mischiato a farine più deboli per aumentarne la forza. Un esempio molto utilizzato è la farina Manitoba.

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